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  • 石墨烯的应用及石墨烯的用途
  • 本站编辑:杭州孚安保温材料有限公司发布日期:2019-10-13 09:58 浏览次数:

石墨烯作为碳纳米材料科技创新的前沿领域,凭借其特殊的晶体结构性能引起了科学界的广泛关注和研究,是迄今为止发现的最薄的二维材料,被认为是构建石墨、富勒烯和碳纳米管和石墨的基本结构单元,具有优良的导热性能,力学性能,较高的电子迁移率,较高的比表面积和量子霍尔效应等性质。由于石墨烯具有优异的导热性能和力学性能,故其在传感器、聚合物纳米复合材料、光电功能材料、药物控制释放等领域表现出众多潜在的石墨烯应用前景。引领了21世纪新的技术革命。

看好未来突破五大领域

业内普遍的看法是,未来石墨烯的应用前景将会在五大领域出现。一是光电产品领域,以其非常好的透光性、导电性和可弯曲性,在触摸屏、可穿戴设备、OLED、太阳能等领域中发挥作用。这也是目前公认最可能首先实现商品化的领域。二是能源技术领域,主要依赖于石墨烯超高的比表面积、超轻的重量和非常好的导电性。采用石墨烯的超级电容器,其极限储能密度是现有材料的2-5倍左右,被称作最理想的电极材料。三是功能复合材料,通过将石墨烯加入各种塑形基体,能够制备出具有很好导电、导热、可加工、耐损伤的特殊材料,在集成电路、散热片、高韧性容器等方面有应用潜力。四是微电子器件。未来的石墨烯半导体、石墨烯集成电路、THz器件等领域,可能需要利用石墨烯独特的性质来发挥。五是生物医药和传感器领域,石墨烯对单分子的响应能力、承载抗体后的分子输运能力都是其他传感器不能实现的。

在医家智烯官网有专门整理出石墨烯纤维的应用和石墨烯发热膜的应用相关资料,这里就不详述了。

那么,除了这两个,石墨烯的应用还有哪些呢?

1. 石墨烯的应用---石墨烯电池

在电池生产中石墨烯可直接作为正负极材料,或是作为导电添加剂添加到正负极材料中,还有是作为涂层提高电池功率特性。充电和续驶里程问题一直困扰着新能源汽车,这是因为铅酸电池和传统锂电池的发展遭遇“瓶颈”,而石墨烯电池有望在此取得突破。在不久前举行的上海车展上,有车企推出了一款石墨烯钛酸锂电池,可以实现10~15分钟快速充电,可持续充放电超过4万次,油电综合续驶里程可达1000千米以上。

2. 石墨烯的应用---石墨烯集成电路

由于具备超高电子传输能力和良好的导热能力,石墨烯被认为会取代现在广泛使用的硅而成为下一代集成电路的根基。2010年,美国一个研究团队制成了首块基于石墨烯的晶体管,并将其整合进一块完整的集成电路中。2016年,中国科学家研制出首只低噪声放大单片集成电路。

3. 石墨烯的应用---石墨烯触摸屏

智能手机最关键的部件是有一块既能导电又非常透明的触摸屏,而石墨烯的良好的柔韧性、导电性和光学透明性完全能满足这一需求,比目前的透明电极材料氧化铟锡(ITO)更完美。韩国研究人员已制造出由多层石墨烯和聚酯片基底组成的透明可弯曲的显示屏,用这种方法还可制造基于石墨烯的太阳能电池、触摸传感器、平板显示器、有机发光二极管等。

4. 石墨烯的应用---石墨烯存储器

英国、韩国的研究人员还在致力开发基于氧化石墨烯的可弯曲、透明的存储系统。基于石墨烯的新型存储材料成本低、功耗小、重量轻、体积小、存储密度高,可以三维堆积。例如,英国开发的这款石墨烯二氧化钛存储只有50 纳米长、8 纳米厚,写入和读取速度仅需5 纳秒。随着基于石墨烯的触屏、内存等电子器件不断开发,未来可弯曲、全透明的智能手机将成为现实。

5. 石墨烯的应用---石墨烯超级材料

美国研究人员把柔软的石墨变成了强劲的“钢筋”,过程是把单层二维结构的石墨烯变成具有三维结构的石墨烯泡沫状材料,再用机械性能较强和高导电性的碳纳米管来强化该材料,从而制成“钢筋石墨烯”。中国研究人员利用细小的管状石墨烯构成一个拥有蜂窝状结构的泡沫材料,它像气球一样轻却像金属一样坚固,未来可以用其制造防弹衣、坦克装甲等。

Graphene as carbon nano materials the forefront of scientific and technological innovation in the field, with its special crystal structure performance has attracted wide attention and research of the scientific community, was found so far the thinnest two-dimensional material, is believed to be construction of graphite, the fullerenes and carbon nanotubes and graphite, the basic structural unit with excellent thermal properties, mechanical properties, high electron mobility, high specific surface area and nature of the quantum hall effect, etc. Due to its excellent thermal conductivity and mechanical properties, graphene has many potential applications in sensors, polymer nanocomposites, photoelectric functional materials, drug controlled release and other fields. Led the 21st century new technological revolution.

Look forward to a breakthrough in five areas

The consensus is that graphene will be used in five areas in the future. First, in the field of photoelectric products, it plays a role in touch screens, wearable devices, OLED, solar energy and other fields due to its excellent light transmittance, electrical conductivity and bendability. This is also currently recognized as the most likely first to commercialize the field. The other is the field of energy technology, which mainly relies on the extremely high specific surface area, extremely light weight and very good electrical conductivity of graphene. Supercapacitors made of graphene, which have a maximum energy storage density of about 2-5 times that of existing materials, have been described as the ideal electrode material. Third, functional composites. By adding graphene into various plastic substrates, special materials with good conductivity, heat conduction, machinability and damage resistance can be prepared, which have potential applications in integrated circuits, heat sink and high-toughness containers. The fourth is microelectronic devices. The future of graphene semiconductors, graphene integrated circuits, THz devices and other fields may need to take advantage of the unique properties of graphene to play. Fifth, in the field of biomedicine and sensors, the response ability of graphene to a single molecule and the molecular transport ability after carrying antibodies are all unrealized by other sensors.

The application of graphene fiber and the application of graphene heating film are specifically sorted out in the website of docyterene, which will not be detailed here.

So, apart from these two, what are the other applications of graphene?

1. Application of graphene -- graphene battery

In the production of batteries, graphene can be directly used as a positive and negative material, or added to the positive and negative materials as a conductive additive, and as a coating to improve the battery power characteristics. The problem of charging and driving range has been plaguing new energy vehicles because of the "bottleneck" in the development of lead-acid batteries and traditional lithium batteries. Graphene batteries are expected to make a breakthrough here. At the recent Shanghai auto show, a car company launched a new type of graphene lithium titanate battery, which can be quickly recharged in 10 to 15 minutes, and can be charged and discharged more than 40,000 times in a sustainable way, with a range of more than 1,000 kilometers.

2. Application of graphene -- graphene integrated circuit

With its ultra-high electron transfer capacity and excellent thermal conductivity, graphene is expected to replace the widely used silicon as the foundation of the next generation of integrated circuits. In 2010, a U.S. research team made the first graphene-based transistor and integrated it into a single integrated circuit. In 2016, Chinese scientists developed the first low-noise amplifier monolithic integrated circuit.

3. Application of graphene -- graphene touch screen

The key component of a smartphone is a touch screen that is both conductive and very transparent. Graphene's flexibility, electrical conductivity and optical transparency fully meet this requirement, which is more perfect than the current transparent electrode material indium tin oxide (ITO). Researchers in South Korea have created transparent, bendable displays made of layers of graphene and a polyester substrate. In this way, graphene-based solar cells, touch sensors, flat-panel displays, organic light-emitting diodes and others can also be made.

4. Application of graphene -- graphene memory

Researchers in the UK and South Korea are also working on flexible, transparent storage systems based on go. The new graphene-based storage materials have low cost, low power consumption, light weight, small size, high storage density and can be stacked in three dimensions. For example, the british-developed graphene titanium dioxide store is only 50 nanometers long and 8 nanometers thick, and can be written and read in just 5 nanoseconds. With the development of graphene-based touch screens, memory and other electronic devices, flexible and fully transparent smartphones of the future will become a reality.

5. Application of graphene -- graphene super material

The us researchers turned the soft graphite into a strong 'steel bar' by turning a single layer of two-dimensional graphene into a three-dimensional graphene foam-like material, which is then reinforced with strong mechanical properties and high electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes to make 'reinforced graphene'. Chinese researchers have used tiny tubes of graphene to form a foam material with a honeycomb structure. It is as light as a balloon but as strong as metal.