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  • 石墨烯:等待突破的材料之王
  • 本站编辑:杭州孚安保温材料有限公司发布日期:2019-10-10 21:04 浏览次数:

石墨烯:新材料之王

石墨烯(Graphene)是一种由碳原子以sp2杂化轨道组成六角型呈蜂巢晶格的二维碳纳米材料,单层的石墨烯是由一层密集的碳六元环构成,它的厚度为0.335nm左右,是目前为止最薄的二维纳米碳材料。

实际上石墨烯本来就存在于自然界,只是难以剥离出单层结构。石墨烯一层层叠起来就是石墨,厚1毫米的石墨大约包含300万层石墨烯。

英国曼彻斯特大学物理学家安德烈·盖姆和康斯坦丁·诺沃肖洛夫,用微机械剥离法成功从石墨中分离出石墨烯,因此共同获得2010年诺贝尔物理学奖。

石墨烯材料拥有其他材料所不具备的特殊性能,如优异的电学性能、出色的机械性能、极高的导热性、超大比表面积、优异的阻隔性能等,使其在众多领域具有传统材料所无法企及的应用价值,因此被称为“新材料之王”。

石墨烯可运用的领域十分广阔,主要集中在能源、环境、电子、化工等行业,尤其是在电子行业的锂电池材料、超级电容器、OLED、柔性屏、传感器、芯片等领域,以及化工行业的涂料、吸附、淡化等领域。

石墨烯产业链:中上游发展较快,下游应用仍待突破

石墨烯上游主要是石墨烯研发、石墨烯设备、石墨烯原料。

中游是石墨烯制备,包括氧化石墨烯以及石墨烯薄膜,氧化石墨烯层数比较多,石墨烯薄膜在10层以下,石墨烯面积以及质量决定下游石墨烯用途。

下游主要是石墨烯应用领域,包括在能源、电子、复材、环保等领域都有非常大的潜在商业价值。

石墨烯自从2004年被发现以来就引起全球各国大力关注,近年来我国政策的推进速度与覆盖范围不断加大,吸引了大量的产业资本不断投入到石墨烯的相关研究与商业化应用方面。

其中,2015年10月发布的《中国制造2025》明确了石墨烯在战略前沿材料中的关键地位,强调其战略布局和研制,努力实现石墨烯产业“2020年形成百亿产业规模,2025年整体产业规模破千亿”的发展目标。

根据CGIAResearch统计的数据,2017年全国拥有石墨烯相关研发、设备、制备、销售、应用、投资、检测、技术服务的单位数量达到4871家,同比增长28.93%。

但实际开展石墨烯业务的企业约2600家。其中从事技术服务、销售、投资及检测的企业有1477家,占据近一半的比例,从事石墨烯相关研究的研发机构有217家,设备和制备的企业(机构)有340家,下游应用方向的企业数量为623家。

上游石墨:国内资源储量丰富,原料质量有竞争力

石墨是制备石墨烯的重要原料之一,根据美国地质调查局(USGS)的统计,2017年全球石墨储量2.7亿吨,土耳其、巴西和中国资源最为丰富,分别占全球总量的33%、26%和21%,合计占比达到80%。

尽管土耳其石墨储量世界第一,但资源以隐晶质石墨为主,主要应用于中低端产品,而巴西和中国以晶质石墨为主,资源战略地位高于隐晶质石墨。

产量方面,近十年来我国石墨产量稳居全球第一,目前国内年产量稳定在80万吨左右,大幅领先第二名巴西产量9.5万吨,在全球产量占比中基本保持在65%~70%,可以说中国掌控着全球石墨资源的供应。

国内分区域来看,以2016年数据为基准,我国晶质石墨保有资源储量约2亿吨,主要分布在黑龙江(43%)、内蒙古(27%)、四川(7%)、山西(6.5%)、山东(5.4%),5省市储量合计占比约89%。隐晶质石墨资源储量约6485万吨,主要分布在内蒙古(58%)、湖南(14.7%)、吉林(13.7%)、广东(5.9%),4省区储量合计约占全国的92%。

整体来看,我国原材料石墨资源储量及产量处于全球领先水平,且资源区域分布较为集中,品质以用于高端化应用的晶质石墨为主。

中游制备:粉体技术领先于薄膜

石墨烯产品可以分为薄膜和粉体两类:石墨烯粉体多掺杂在其他材料中使用,多应用于涂料和锂离子电池领域;石墨烯薄膜则因透明、导电、柔性好等优点,在电子、光子及光电设备领域的应用十分广泛,极具发展前景。

目前,比较主流的石墨烯制备方法有氧化还原法、化学气相沉积法、液相剥离法和外延生长法,不同制备方法获得的石墨烯在品质和成本上差别较大,相应产品的适用领域也有差异。

决定量产的关键因素首先是技术成熟度,其次是制造成本和产业应用障碍。

下游应用:集中应用于新能源领域

近年来,我国石墨烯产业化应用取得了一定进展,上下游产业链已初步打通、下游应用领域不断拓展。

根据CGIAResearch统计,石墨烯市场规模从2015年的6亿元,增长至2017年的70亿元,其中石墨烯在新能源领域的市场规模达到50亿元,石墨烯涂料市场规模达到8亿元,复合材料和大健康产业均达到5亿元,节能环保和电子信息领域均达到1亿元。

其中石墨烯粉体可应用在材料学的各个领域,比如导电剂、超级电容、特种涂料、高效催化剂等。

石墨烯粉体主要是以添加剂的形式和别的材料形成混合或者复合材料(除了导热膜、超级电容器),让这些混合或者复合材料具备石墨烯的力学、电学、热学性能。

石墨烯薄膜方面,一方面可以应用在导热膜上,发挥其优异的导热性能,用于智能手机、平板电脑等设备的散热层;利用石墨烯的导电透光以及高度柔性,可以用来制作柔性显示屏、可穿戴设备等;

石墨烯巨大的比表面积以及优异的电子传输性能,使传感器领域成为石墨烯薄膜的一大目标市场;

此外,石墨烯对硅的替代有望带来半导体领域颠覆性的革命,成为下一代集成电路、超级计算机的基础材料。

经过多年的自主研发,我国石墨烯的规模化生产技术、工艺装备和产品质量均取得一定突破。

在应用前景方面,相对来说石墨烯粉体的低成本优势明显,且产业应用障碍较小,未来有望率先于薄膜获得规模化应用。

2020年石墨烯导电剂有望突破成本瓶颈,市场空间将迎来快速发展。

目前市场上常用的锂电池导电剂有炭黑、碳纳米管、纳米碳纤维和石墨烯等。

相对于传统锂电池导电剂,石墨烯无论是在电导率、比表面积、颗粒大小还是分散性能方面,都表现出巨大的优势。

相关研究证明,在导电添加剂用量为1-6wt%的范围内,石墨烯导电剂的电阻率均仅为同浓度的导电碳黑1/40-1/60,仅为同浓度碳纳米1/10左右。在10C、电池容量为0-133mAh·g-1时,石墨烯的放电电压也明显高于导电碳黑。

价格方面:根据石墨烯产业联盟的统计数据,2015年石墨烯导电剂的价格为230美元/千克,与碳纳米管导电剂价格相当,但其价格下降趋势明显,2017的平均价格下降至180美元/千克的水平。

参考单晶硅在光伏领域的应用(技术突破耗时大概2~3年),考虑到相关资本的涌入以及国家政策的大力支持,石墨烯生产工艺将进一步成熟,我们预计到2020年左右石墨烯导电剂有望突破成本瓶颈,价格有望下降至100美元/千克,而同期碳纳米管价格依然维持200美元/千克左右(因为碳纳米管技术已较为成熟,成本下降空间较小)。

2016~2017年是石墨烯在锂电池领域应用的探索期,整体市场渗透率比较低,预计在1%左右,此阶段的增长动力主要得益于新能源汽车快速增长带来的锂电池产能迅速扩张,2016~2017年新能源汽车产量的年均增速达到50%以上,同期锂离子电池的产量增速达到30%以上,2017年锂电池产量突破110亿只。

2018年以来,随着政府逐步取消对新能源汽车的补贴,新能源汽车产量增速逐步放缓,从而导致锂电池增速有所下降。

我们认为,未来锂电池的市场增长或由技术进步来推动,考虑到石墨烯相比其他导电剂的高性能优势,以及未来在成本上的竞争性,石墨烯在锂电池导电剂的市场份额有望逐步提高,从而推动市场规模不断扩张。

我们假设未来2~3年锂电池增速稳定在20%左右,从而预计到2020年锂电池的产量将达到160GWh。

渗透率方面:2018年石墨烯在锂电池中的渗透率达到2.5%左右,参考三元正极材料渗透率从2015年的18%上升至2017年的39%,我们预计到2020年石墨烯渗透率将上升至5%左右,对应石墨烯需求量在2.1万吨左右。

若随着技术成熟石墨烯的价格下降至65万元/吨左右,那么我们预测到2020年石墨烯在导电剂领域的市场规模将达到140亿元左右。

超级电容器是一种介于传统电容器和二次电池之间的电化学储能装置,优势在于容量大、功率密度高、循环寿命长等,特别适合于电动汽车、电源系统、便携式电子设备等应用。但比能量密度低则是超级电容一大瓶颈,从目前看到技术进展看,石墨烯有望提升超级电容器能量密度10倍以上,从而大大改变目前超级电容性能上的不足。

近年来,由于国家出台相关的产业支持政策,我国超级电容器行业取得了较快发展,2017年行业市场规模突破70亿元,同比增长31%。

“十三五”期间,推动我国超级电容器行业的发展的主要动力仍然在于政策,新能源汽车、风电、交通轨道、电力、军工等超级电容应用领域都是国家“十三五”期间政策重点扶持对象。

我们认为2019~2020年年均复合增速将维持在30%左右,到2020年超级电容器市场规模有望达到150亿元。

未来两年石墨烯用于防腐涂料的市场规模有望增长50%

石墨烯在涂料领域的应用主要集中在六个方向,分别是防腐涂料、导电涂料、建筑隔热涂料、海洋防污涂料、聚合物水泥防水涂料、阻燃涂料。

涂料中添加石墨烯后,石墨烯能够形成稳定的导电网格,有效提高锌粉的利用率,从实际效果来看,添加约5%的石墨烯粉,可减少50%锌粉的使用量。

在各类涂料中,目前石墨烯在重防腐涂料中的应用最为广泛。

重防腐涂料作为国民经济重要领域的主要工程材料,它涉及到交通运输、石油化工、电力、海洋工程、建筑工程等部门,国际上已将重防腐涂料发展水平高低作为衡量涂料工业先进程度的标准。

2017年我国重防腐涂料产量达到389万吨,占防腐涂料产量比重为65%,考虑到国家鼓励并支持重防腐涂料技术研发、生产,我们预计未来2年重防腐涂料的占比有望维持这一水平,2020年重防腐涂料产量有望达到490万吨左右。

石墨烯薄膜性能优势明显,未来发展仍待突破上文对几大领域的市场规模分析均是基于石墨烯粉体应用,而石墨烯薄膜方面,主要应用于导热膜、柔性显示和传感器等方面,虽然目前在量产方面不及粉体,但未来仍具备广阔的发展前景。

在电子设备迅速普及,尤其是智能手机、笔记本电脑等移动终端蓬勃发展的大背景下,设备高功率运行的散热问题一直是业界的关注点,具有高导热能力的散热薄膜是这方面的关键材料,是实现高效热量管理的有效手段。

目前使用最广泛的导热物质是石墨,众多的智能手机以及笔记本电脑等都配备有相应的石墨散热产品。但是,石墨烯是已知的导热系数最高的物质,理论导热率达到5300W/m·K,散热效率远高于目前的商用石墨散热片。

另外,石墨烯导热片技术难度小、工艺相对成熟,存在快速进入市场的机会。随着智能手机大屏化,智能终端芯片高速化等趋势,对设备的散热能力要求越来越高,也开启了导热性能更好的石墨烯导热膜充足的发展空间。

我们预计到2020年采用石墨烯散热膜进行散热的散热组件将达到总电子产品及LED产品市场的10%,即可为石墨烯散热膜带来3.5亿左右的市场空间。

石墨烯不但具有纳米尺寸,而且具备准连续的特点,这种准连续的纳米石墨烯薄膜可转移到柔性衬底上,制作柔性、透明的高灵敏度传感器。

石墨烯的柔性应力传感器具有良好的稳定性,在经过大于万次的压力测试后,其初始电阻没有明显变化。

可穿戴设备市场的飞跃给石墨烯传感器带来了巨大的市场机遇

可穿戴设备对屏幕柔性要求较高,需要灵敏的传感器配件,石墨烯的透明和柔韧是可穿戴设备真正实现可穿戴的途径。

我国可穿戴设备市场规模从2011年的2.3亿元增长至2017年的264.2亿元,年均增速达到120%。

2017年我国智能可穿戴设备行业产量约5880万台,同比增长32.43%。

目前市场上最成熟的柔性显示屏使用ITO膜(氧化铟锡),占据了显示面板40%左右的成本。

从成本上来看,鉴于ITO已经规模化量产多年且价格逐年走低,石墨烯在现有产业环境下不具备大规模替代ITO的成本优势。

我们认为短期内石墨烯对ITO的替代或从可穿戴等柔性显示高附加值市场开始。

从长期来看,石墨烯薄膜的透明性及导电性都优于ITO材料,并且具有ITO在柔性领域所不具备的特性。

因此,石墨烯被认为是柔性显示屏中可完美替代ITO的材料,待石墨烯薄膜的成本下降至与ITO相当水平时,石墨烯薄膜的市场规模有望迎来快速发展。

整体来看,我们预计到2020年石墨烯在锂电池的市场规模将达到140亿元左右,在超级电容器的市场规模将达到4亿元左右,在涂料领域的市场规模将达到35亿元左右,在导热膜及传感器中的市场规模达到7.5亿元左右,这五者合计市场规模将达到200亿元左右。

考虑到石墨烯在这些领域的应用将快于其他行业,我们预计应用占比将小幅上升至80%左右,从而我们预计到2020年石墨烯的市场规模将达到230亿元左右,市场快速增长的贡献主要来自于石墨烯用于导电剂的粉体价格将突破成本瓶颈,石墨烯导电剂市场空间迎来快速发展。

从行业发展趋势上看,石墨烯整个产业链具备良好的发展前景和持续的增长潜力,属于朝阳行业。未来随技术进步带来的成本下降以及产品大规模量产,石墨烯有望迎来爆发式增长。

Hiphop graphene: the king of new materials

Graphene is a two-dimensional carbon nanomaterial composed of carbon atoms with sp2 hybrid orbitals and a hexagonal type, which is like a honeycomb lattice. The single-layer Graphene is composed of a layer of dense carbon six-membered rings. Its thickness is about 0.335nm, which is the thinnest two-dimensional carbon nanomaterial so far.

In fact, graphene already exists in nature, but it is difficult to peel off the monolayer structure. Layers of graphene make graphite, and one millimeter thick contains about three million layers of graphene.

University of Manchester physicists Andre geim and konstantin novoselov won the 2010 Nobel Prize in physics for successfully separating graphene from graphite by micromechanical stripping.

Graphene materials have special properties that other materials do not have, such as excellent electrical properties, excellent mechanical properties, extremely high thermal conductivity, large specific surface area, excellent barrier properties, etc., which make it have application value that traditional materials cannot match in many fields. Therefore, it is called "the king of new materials".

Graphene can be used in a wide range of fields, mainly in energy, environment, electronics, chemical industry and other industries, especially in the electronics industry lithium battery materials, super capacitors, OLED, flexible screen, sensors, chips and other fields, as well as the chemical industry coating, adsorption, desalination and other fields.

Industrial chain of hiphop graphene: the development of the upper and middle reaches is fast, but the application of the lower reaches is still waiting for a breakthrough

The upstream of graphene is mainly graphene research and development, graphene equipment, and graphene raw materials.

The middle part is the preparation of graphene, including go and graphene film. The number of layers of go is relatively large. The graphene film is below 10 layers.

The downstream is mainly the application field of graphene, which has great potential commercial value in energy, electronics, composites, environmental protection and other fields.

Since its discovery in 2004, graphene has attracted great attention from countries around the world. In recent years, the speed and coverage of China's policies have been increasing, attracting a large amount of industrial capital to continuously invest in related research and commercial application of graphene.

Among them, made in China 2025 released in October 2015 clarified the key position of graphene in strategic frontier materials, emphasized its strategic layout and development, and stried to achieve the development goal of "forming a 10 billion industrial scale by 2020 and a total industrial scale exceeding 100 billion by 2025" for the graphene industry.

According to CGIAResearch, in 2017, the number of graphene-related r&d, equipment, preparation, sales, application, investment, testing and technical services in China reached 4,871, up 28.93% year-on-year.

But about 2,600 companies are actually doing business with graphene. Among them, 1,477 enterprises are engaged in technical services, sales, investment and testing, accounting for nearly half of the total, 217 research and development institutes are engaged in graphene-related research, 340 enterprises (institutes) are engaged in equipment and preparation, and 623 enterprises are engaged in downstream applications.

Upstream graphite: domestic resources are abundant, raw material quality is competitive

Graphite is one of the important raw materials for preparing graphene. According to the statistics of the us geological survey (USGS), in 2017, the world's graphite reserves were 270 million tons, with Turkey, Brazil and China having the most abundant resources, accounting for 33%, 26% and 21% of the global total respectively, accounting for 80% of the total.

Although Turkey has the largest graphite reserves in the world, its resources are mainly cryptocrystalline graphite, which is mainly used in medium and low-end products. However, Brazil and China are mainly crystalline graphite, whose resource strategic position is higher than that of cryptocrystalline graphite.

In terms of output, China's graphite output has been the first in the world in recent ten years. At present, the domestic annual output is stable at about 800,000 tons, which is significantly ahead of the second place, Brazil's output of 95,000 tons. In terms of global output, China basically keeps at 65%~70%, which can be said that China controls the global supply of graphite resources.

In terms of domestic regions, based on the 2016 data, China's crystalline graphite reserves are about 200 million tons, mainly distributed in heilongjiang (43%), Inner Mongolia (27%), sichuan (7%), shanxi (6.5%) and shandong (5.4%). The reserves of the five provinces and cities account for about 89%. The reserves of cryptocrystalline graphite are about 64.85 million tons, mainly distributed in Inner Mongolia (58%), hunan (14.7%), jilin (13.7%) and guangdong (5.9%).

On the whole, China's raw material graphite resource reserves and output are in the world's leading level, and the resource distribution is relatively concentrated, the quality is mainly used for high-end applications of crystalline graphite.

Midstream preparation: powder technology is ahead of thin film

Graphene products can be divided into two categories: thin film and powder. Graphene powder is mostly doped in other materials, mainly used in coatings and lithium ion batteries. Due to the advantages of transparency, conductivity and flexibility, graphene film has been widely used in the fields of electronics, photons and optoelectronic devices, and has great development prospects.

At present, the mainstream graphene preparation methods include REDOX method, chemical vapor deposition method, liquid phase stripping method and epitaxial growth method. The quality and cost of graphene obtained by different preparation methods are quite different, and the applicable fields of corresponding products are also different.

The key factors that determine mass production are firstly technology maturity, secondly manufacturing cost and industrial application obstacle.

Downstream application: concentrated application in the field of new energy

In recent years, certain progress has been made in the industrial application of graphene in China. The upstream and downstream industrial chains have been initially broken through and the downstream application fields have been continuously expanded.

According to CGIAResearch, graphene market size from 600 million yuan in 2015, growth in 2017 to 7 billion yuan, including the graphene in the field of new energy market size reached 5 billion yuan, the graphene coatings market reached 800 million yuan, composite materials and large health industry achieves 500 million yuan, the fields of both energy saving and environmental protection and the 100 million yuan.

Among them, graphene powder can be applied in various fields of materials science, such as conductive agents, supercapacitors, special coatings, high-efficiency catalysts and so on.

Graphene powder is mainly in the form of additives and other materials to form a mixture or composite materials (except thermal conductivity film, super capacitor), so that these mixed or composite materials have the mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of graphene.

In terms of graphene film, on the one hand, it can be applied to thermal conductivity film to give play to its excellent thermal conductivity and be used as the thermal layer of smart phones, tablets and other devices. The conductive light transmission and high flexibility of graphene can be used to make flexible display screens, wearable devices and so on.

Graphene's large specific surface area and excellent electronic transmission performance make the sensor field a major target market for graphene thin films.

In addition, the replacement of silicon by graphene is expected to revolutionize the semiconductor field and become the basic material for the next generation of integrated circuits and supercomputers.

After years of independent research and development, China has made breakthroughs in the large-scale production technology, process equipment and product quality of graphene.

In terms of application prospects, compared with graphene powder, it has obvious advantages of low cost, and the industrial application barriers are relatively small. In the future, it is expected to be the first to achieve large-scale application in the film.

In 2020, graphene conductive agent is expected to break the cost bottleneck, and the market space will usher in rapid development.

Currently, commonly used conductive agents for lithium batteries include carbon black, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers and graphene.

Compared with traditional lithium battery conductive agents, graphene shows great advantages in terms of conductivity, specific surface area, particle size and dispersion performance.

Relevant studies have proved that in the range of 1-6wt% conductive additive, the resistivity of graphene conductive agents is only 1/40-1/60 of conductive carbon black of the same concentration, and only 1/10 of carbon nanometer of the same concentration. At 10C and the battery capacity of 0-133mah ·g-1, the discharge voltage of graphene is also significantly higher than that of conductive carbon black.

Price: according to the statistics of the graphene industry alliance, the price of graphene conductive agent in 2015 was $230 / kg, which is similar to the price of carbon nanotube conductive agent. However, the price of graphene conductive agent has a significant downward trend, and the average price in 2017 dropped to $180 / kg.

Monocrystalline silicon application in the field of photovoltaic (technical breakthrough takes about 2 ~ 3 years), considering the related to the flow of capital and the strong support of national policy, graphene will further mature production technology, we expect that by 2020 or so graphene conductive agent is expected to cost of breakthrough the bottleneck, prices are expected to fall to $100 / kg, while the carbon nanotube price still keep $200 / kg (because carbon nanotube technology is relatively mature, cost reduction less space).

In 2016 ~ 2017 is application of graphene in lithium battery field exploration, the overall market penetration is low, at about 1%, is expected at this stage of growth is mainly thanks to rapid growth of new energy vehicles of the lithium battery capacity expansion, new energy automobile production from 2016 to 2017 the average annual growth rate of above 50%, over the same period of lithium ion battery production growth is above 30%, lithium battery production reached 11 billion 2017 only.

Since 2018, with the gradual elimination of subsidies for new energy vehicles by the government, the production growth of new energy vehicles has gradually slowed down, resulting in a decline in the growth of lithium battery.

We believe that the market growth of lithium battery in the future may be driven by technological progress. Given the high performance advantages of graphene over other conductive agents and future cost competitiveness, the market share of graphene in lithium battery conductive agents is expected to gradually increase, thus driving the market scale to keep expanding.

We assume that the growth rate of lithium battery in the next two to three years will be stable at about 20%, so the production of lithium battery is expected to reach 160GWh by 2020.

In terms of permeability, the permeability of graphene in lithium battery reached about 2.5% in 2018, and the permeability of reference ternary positive electrode material increased from 18% in 2015 to 39% in 2017. We expect that the permeability of graphene will increase to about 5% by 2020, corresponding to the demand for graphene of about 21,000 tons.

If the price of graphene falls to about 650,000 yuan/ton with the mature technology, we predict that the market size of graphene in the field of conductive agent will reach about 14 billion yuan by 2020.

Supercapacitor is a kind of electrochemical energy storage device between traditional capacitor and secondary battery, with the advantages of large capacity, high power density, long cycle life, etc., especially suitable for electric vehicles, power systems, portable electronic equipment and other applications. However, the low energy density is a major bottleneck of ultracapacitors. According to the current technological progress, graphene is expected to improve the energy density of ultracapacitors by more than 10 times, which will greatly change the current performance shortage of ultracapacitors.

In recent years, China's super capacitor industry has achieved rapid development due to relevant industrial support policies issued by the state. In 2017, the industry market scale exceeded 7 billion yuan, with a year-on-year growth of 31%.

During the 13th five-year plan period, the main driving force to promote the development of China's super capacitor industry still lies in policies. New energy vehicles, wind power, transportation rail, electric power, military industry and other super capacitor application fields are all the key objects supported by national policies during the 13th five-year plan period.

We believe that the annual compound growth rate will remain at about 30% from 2019 to 2020, and the market size of supercapacitors is expected to reach 15 billion yuan by 2020.

The market for graphene in anticorrosive coatings is expected to grow by 50% over the next two years

The application of graphene in coatings mainly focuses on six directions: anticorrosive coatings, conductive coatings, building insulation coatings, Marine antifouling coatings, polymer cement waterproof coatings and flame retardant coatings.

When graphene is added to the coating, graphene can form a stable conductive grid, which effectively improves the utilization rate of zinc powder. From the actual effect, adding about 5% graphene powder can reduce the use of zinc powder by 50%.

Among all kinds of coatings, graphene is currently the most widely used in heavy anticorrosive coatings.

Heavy anticorrosive coatings as an important field of national economy of the main engineering materials, it involves transportation, petrochemical, electric power, Marine engineering, construction engineering and other departments, the international development level of heavy anticorrosive coatings as a measure of the advanced degree of coating industry standards.

In 2017, the output of heavy anticorrosive coatings in China reached 3.89 million tons, accounting for 65% of the total output. Considering that the state encourages and supports the r&d and production of heavy anticorrosive coatings, it is expected that the proportion of heavy anticorrosive coatings in the next two years is expected to maintain this level, and the output of heavy anticorrosive coatings in 2020 is expected to reach about 4.9 million tons.

Graphene membrane performance obvious advantages, the future development remains to be the breakthrough of several big above are based on the size of the market analysis in the field of graphene powders applications, and for graphene films, mainly used as the thermal conductivity of membrane, flexible display and sensor and so on, although less powder in mass production, but still has broad prospects in the future.

Under the background of rapid popularization of electronic devices, especially smart phones, laptops and other mobile terminals, the heat dissipation problem of high power operation of equipment has always been the focus of the industry. Heat dissipation thin film with high thermal conductivity is a key material in this regard and an effective means to achieve efficient heat management.

At present, the most widely used heat conduction material is graphite. Many smart phones and laptops are equipped with corresponding graphite heat dissipation products. However, graphene is known to have the highest thermal conductivity, with a theoretical thermal conductivity of 5300W/m·K, which is much more efficient than current commercial graphite heat sinks.

In addition, due to the low technical difficulty and relatively mature technology, there is an opportunity to enter the market quickly. With the trend of large screen of smart phone and high-speed chip of smart terminal, the heat dissipation ability of the device is increasingly required, which also opens sufficient space for the development of graphene heat conduction film with better thermal conductivity.

We expect that by 2020, the heat dissipation components using graphene heat dissipation membrane for heat dissipation will reach 10% of the total market of electronic products and LED products, which will bring about 350 million market space for graphene heat dissipation membrane.

Graphene is not only nanoscale, but also quasi-continuous, which can be transferred to a flexible substrate to make flexible, transparent and highly sensitive sensors.

The flexible stress sensor of graphene has good stability. After more than 10,000 pressure tests, its initial resistance has no significant change.

The leap in the wearable market presents a huge market opportunity for graphene sensors

Wearable devices have high requirements on screen flexibility and need sensitive sensor accessories. The transparency and flexibility of graphene is the way to truly realize wearable devices.

China's wearable device market grew from 230 million yuan in 2011 to 26.42 billion yuan in 2017, with an average annual growth rate of 120 percent.

In 2017, China's smart wearable device industry produced 58.8 million units, up 32.43 percent year-on-year.

Currently, the most mature flexible display screens on the market use ITO film (indium tin oxide), which accounts for about 40% of the cost of display panel.

In terms of cost, given that ITO has been mass-produced for many years and the price is lower year by year, graphene does not have the cost advantage of large-scale replacement of ITO in the current industrial environment.

We think in the short term graphite